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In the Ed-Fi community today, local education agencies (LEAs) often confront the issue of how to handle code sets – referred to in Ed-Fi as “descriptors” – in their Ed-Fi ODS API implementations. Essentially, the issue boils down to this question:

In our implementation of the Ed-Fi platform, do we map to and use the default Ed-Fi descriptor values (adding to those as necessary), or do we use our own, current values (and ignore or remove the Ed-Fi values)?

An example can be helpful – consider student absences.

An Example: Student Absences

The Ed-Fi data model includes a set of “default” attendance event values that have been refined via field work, and these are included in the ODS API by default. Those values are:

  • In Attendance
  • Excused Absence
  • Unexcused Absence
  • Tardy
  • Early departure
  • Partial

(Technically these are the default values for AttendanceEventCategory in Data Standard 3.1)

However, we can easily imagine other categories that add more specificity to these, such as “Medically Excused Absence” or “Homebound” or even possibly “Service Day.” We can also imagine that a LEA may not observe some of the Ed-Fi default values – perhaps the LEA has no general concept of “Unexcused” (maybe they only have specific sub-classes: “Medical”, etc.) or has no concept of “Early departure” (maybe they only have “Partial day”).

Options for LEAs

Enumerations are important classifiers of data and are therefore very important to analytics and operational use cases; the approach an LEA takes to this question matters, but many are confused as to best practice.

Note that there is no “right” answer to this question. This document summarizes the main answers we see today in field work to this question and was written to help agencies chose the path right for them.

Note that this document also focuses on Student Information System data, where extensive localization of option sets is most common. See the “Q & A” section at bottom for more info on areas where enumeration sets are more standardized.

Approach 1: Adopt and Extend

Some implementations take an adopt and extend approach. In this case, the LEA keeps the default Ed-Fi values but adds the additional descriptor values that are missing from the Ed-Fi set. If there are any Ed-Fi values that should not be used, these are excluded by external documentation and downstream validations; generally no Ed-Fi default values are removed.

Note that when values are added, they must always be added in the LEA namespace and should be given a definition.


What are the Pros and Cons of Adopt and Extend?

PROs

CONs

External parties will understand many of your descriptor values, which can enhance “plug and play” interoperability

Implementations can take longer to get started, as they need to do more data mapping at the outset

The work to map local and Ed-Fi values can drive internal conversations about if current values are needed or used

Mixing and matching sets of values often results in fuzzy or partial matches – minor sacrifices on data semantics and coherence


Ed-Fi values are not immediately obvious to local users – local staff are forced to learn new values

Approach 2: Use Local Values

Some implementations elect to use local values approach. In this case, the agency adds all of its descriptor values natively and ignores all Ed-Fi values.

Descriptors added in this approach are always to be added in the LEA namespace, to avoid confusion with values governed by the Ed-Fi efforts. (See above section on “What are Descriptor Namespaces” for why this is important).

Also, Ed-Fi’s default descriptor values are generally not actually removed (though this is possible). It is generally not a problems to have 2 sets of values because it is easy to see all the local values and distinguish them from the un-used values, by looking at the descriptor namespace.

What are the Pros and Cons of Use Local Values?

PROs

CONs

Reduces time to start an implementation, as less data mapping is needed

External parties less likely to understand the values and semantics. “Plug and play” interoperability will require more work.



Value sets may be more coherent.

Internal conversations about values can be useful, as can norming with widely-used values.

Internal users understand these values, so can work with Ed-Fi data easier


Approach 3: Hybrid Values  (Approach 2 + State Descriptors)

Some implementations are choosing to use a mix of values, most commonly local values and state values.  In this case, the LEA keeps the local values in their namespace (for example "mydistrict.edu") but adds the additional descriptor values that are pertinent for state reporting in state namespace (for example "mystate.edu").

Note

This is a newer pattern in the community and so is less well understood.

What are the Pros and Cons of using Hybrid Values?

PROs

CONs

Reduces time to start an implementation, as less data mapping is needed assuming the number of state descriptors are limited and most state mappings are already known.

External parties less likely to understand the values and semantics. “Plug and play” interoperability will require more work.

Value sets may be more coherent.

Internal conversations about values can be useful, as can norming with widely-used values.

Internal users generally understand these values, so can work with Ed-Fi data easier.   

Translation of local definitions and values to state ones may result in some data loss, and therefore in lower quality analytics.

Can enhance the LEA ability to understand impacts of data for state contexts.

Q & A

Which approach is right for my agency?

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There is no right answer: you should consider the trade-offs above. For example, if you need to get an implementation into use quickly, the second approach will provide some advantages for that. However, if your main goal is to integrate with 3rd party service providers, the first approach may serve you better.


Why doesn’t the Alliance recommend one approach or the other to ensure that the community is behaving consistently?

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The Ed-Fi Alliance approach has always been to follow actual field evidence and success. Over time, as the community learns about and can point to real field work showing what works, we can provide more specific guidance on community practice.


How can a technology standard leave open the questions about allowed enumeration values? Doesn’t that make a standard “non-standard”?

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Note that specific Ed-Fi API specifications and certifications can and do mandate the use of specific enumeration sets. For example, the Ed-Fi Assessment API requires the use of Ed-Fi default values for most enumerations, but allows a small set to vary. (See: Ed-Fi Assessment Outcomes API for Suite 2 Certification#Enumerations).

Also, as time goes on and the Ed-Fi community learns more, the community will determine where additional collaboration on enumerations can be added to specifications.

Note also that while the ultimate goal of data interoperability is plug and play systems, in actuality it takes a long time to get to that point in any industry. Earlier stages before “plug and play” that help unlock data from systems can provide substantial value and help us iterate and improve. The fact that our community is having this conversation about a very nuanced issue is evidence of substantial past success.


What is “operational context” and how does it relate to these questions?

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One concept under development in the Ed-Fi community is that all data exchanges are shaped by an “operational context”; this direction was born out of the long history of enumerations in Ed-Fi field work, and the observations from that work that there are few truly cross-sector contexts, or at least few truly broad cross-sector contexts.

In using enumerations, we often need to switch contexts. For example, our SIS systems have one set of enumeration values for local district operations, but then when it comes time to report to the state, that same SIS system uses another set of enumeration values, the ones defined by the state. Further, when the state reports on elements of that data to the federal government, it may use yet another set of values for the same concepts. Each of these contexts is an “operational context.”

Contexts can also be community governed and use-case specific. We can propose and define contexts that are designed to satisfy specific use cases, such as interoperability of student outcomes data from assessment systems.

Such contexts may affect not only code sets, but also the identity of elements. For example, I may have a local school ID, but then the state has a different ID, and the federal government an NCES ID – three identifiers all for the same physical school.

In the ODS API, the work around “operational context” refers to technical work looking at if data can be translated from one context into another context, with enumeration values and identity attributes mapped automatically.


What are Descriptor Namespaces?

For those not aware of descriptor namespaces, a descriptor has a few parts; among those are:

  • code value – what is the actual code that is transmitted?
  • definition – how is this value defined?
  • namespace – whose value is this?

The code value and definition should be self-evident.

However, the namespace is often less understood; the namespace is an indicator of whose value this is. Generally it is provided in URI format using a domain name under the control of the organization who governs this code, as in “mydistrict.edu” For example, all Ed-Fi governed values are in the namespace “ed-fi.org”, indicating that these are governed by the Ed-Fi Alliance.

When you create your own descriptor values, it is imperative that those values be in your namespace. No one but the Ed-Fi Alliance should ever publish values in the “ed-fi.org” namespace.

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